# Electromagnetic waves and physical optics (05_XBOPT)

**Coefficient :**2.5**Hourly Volume:**70h (including 36h supervised)- CTD : 36h supervised (and 6h unsupervised)
- Out-of-schedule personal work : 28h

### AATs Lists

## Description

- Equations governing the propagation of light
- Maxwell's equations
- Propagation equation

- Plane wave model
- Polarization of light
- Vector nature of light
- Concepts of polarization and polarimetry
- Reflection and refraction when passing a diopter - Fresnel coefficients

- Light interference
- Light diffraction

## Learning Outcomes AAv (AAv)

AAv1 [heures: 9, B2, B3] : At the end of the course, students of semester 5 are able to calculate the characteristic parameters of a monochromatic plane electromagnetic wave (wavelength, frequency, phase speed and speed of group, intensity, electric and magnetic fields) in a linear, homogeneous, isotropic and transparent dielectric medium where it propagates and to characterize its structure.

AAv2 [heures: 8, B2, B3] : At the end of the course, students are able to determine the polarization state of a plane electromagnetic wave from the parametric expression of the electric field of the wave and vice versa

AAv3 [heures: 13, B2, B3, C1] : At the end of the course, students are able to describe and analyze the change in polarization state of an electromagnetic wave using polarimetry instruments (birefringent plates, rectilinear polarizer ideal, and their combination).

AAv4 [heures: 7.5, B2, B3] : At the end of the course, students are able to calculate and characterize the Fresnel coefficients in amplitude and intensity relating to the reflection and transmission of a plane wave on a diopter plane and determine the polarization state of the reflected wave and the transmitted wave.

AAv5 [heures: 9, B2, B3] : At the end of the course, students are able to calculate the interference of electromagnetic waves of the same frequency, polarized or non-polarized.

AAv6 [heures: 16, B2, B3, C1] : At the end of the course, students are able to characterize and analyze interferometric setups (photodetection of an optical beat, Young interferometer, Mach-Zehnder and Fabry interferometers -Perot, anti-reflective layer, etc.) and to explain and interpret phenomena linked to interference (Newton rings, iridescence, etc.).

AAv7 [heures: 7.5, B2, B3, C1] : At the end of the course, students are able to state the principles of diffraction, analyze the distribution of light intensity due to diffraction through various apertures (slit rectangular, circular slit, diffraction gratings), as well as describing the phenomena linked to diffraction (Airy spot, resolving power limited by diffraction, etc.).

## Assessment methods

A long continuous monitoring assessment (coefficient 1) and the average of several short continuous monitoring assessments (coefficient 1)

## Key Words

Propagation equation, polarization, Fresnel coefficients, interference, diffraction

## Prerequisites

Basic notions of geometric optics, geometry and linear algebra

## Resources

- J.-P. Pérez, Optique – Fondements et applications, 7ème éd., Dunod, 2004
- G. Bruhat, Optique, 6ème éd., Dunod, 2005
- M. Born & E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed., Cambridge University Press, 1999.
- Handouts